Kategorie-Archiv: Armenien

Armenien — Überblick

Republik Armenien
Lage
Süd-westliches Asien (Kleinkaukasus) zwischen der Türkei im Westen, Georgien im Norden, Aserbaidschan im Osten (und Westen: aserbaidschanische Exklave Nachitschewan) und dem Iran im Süden. Armenien erhebt Anspruch auf das vollständig von Aserbaidschan umschlossene, armenisch besiedelte Gebiet Berg-Karabach.
Fläche
gesamt: 29 800 qkm
Land
28 400 qkm
Wasser
1 400 qkm
Landesgrenzen
gesamt: 1 254 km
Grenzstaaten
Aserbaidschan Kernland 566 km, Aserbaidschan Exklave Nachitschewan 221 km, Georgien 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkei 268 km; keine Küste

Armenien Karte

Daten des Statistischen Bundesamtes

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Bevölkerung 3,8 Mill. 2001
Fläche 29800 qkm 2001
Bevölkerungsdichte 127 Einw. je qkm 2001
Arbeitslosenquote n.v.
Bruttoinlandsprodukt (BIP) 1914 Mill.US-$ 2000
Jährliches BIP-Wachstum (real) 6,0 % 2000
BIP je Einwohner (real) 976 US-$ 2000
Inflationsrate -0,8 % 2000
Importe 882 Mill.US-$ 2000
Exporte 294 Mill.US-$ 2000
Saldo der Im- und Exporte -588 Mill.US-$ 2000
PKW-Dichte n.v.
Personal-Computer 8 je 1000 Einw. 2001
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Bevölkerungsdichte
127 Menschen je qkm
Hauptstadt
Eriwan (Jerewan), ca. 1 300 000 EW
Städte
Yerevan 1 200 000, Gyumri (121 000 EW), Vanadzor (74 000 EW) und Abovian (54 000 EW).
Staatsform
Präsidialrepublik seit 1991, Verfassung seit Juli 1995 in Kraft. Ein-Kammer-Parlament mit 131 Sitzen. Wahl alle 4 Jahre. Direktwahl des Staatsoberhauptes alle 5 Jahre. Der Staatspräsident verfügt über weitgehende Exekutivvollmachten. Die Regierungsgeschäfte werden vom Ministerrat mit dem Ministerpräsidenten an der Spitze geführt.
Verwaltungsstruktur
10 Distrikte, 1 Stadt (Jerewan)
Klima
Kontinentales Hochlandklima mit großen Temperaturgegensätzen und geringem Niederschlag. In Jerewan beträgt die durchschnittliche Temperatur 11,6 °C. Extremtemperaturen sind 47 °C und -26 °C.
Landschaft
Armenien ist ein Gebirgsland und wird fast vollständig von den Ausläufern des Kleinen Kaukasus eingenommen. Der Großteil des Landes liegt in 1.000 bis 2.500 m ü.d.M.. Im Norden und Osten liegen die über 3.000 m hohen Gebirgsketten des Kleinen Kaukasus. Größter See Armeniens ist der 1.900 m ü.d.M. liegende Sewansee.

World Bank Supports Improvement of Water Services in Yerevan

The World Bank Board approved an International Development Association (IDA) credit of US$20 million for the Yerevan Water and Wastewater Project (YWWP). The credit will assist the Armenian Government in its efforts to improve Yerevan’s water and wastewater system by continuing and expanding accomplishments achieved under a previous IDA-financed Municipal Development Project (MDP).

The YWWP will help provide Yerevan with safe, continuous water supply while reducing environmental pollution. This is the third IDA-financed water and wastewater project in Armenia. The World Bank also financed the initial Municipal Development Project to support Yerevan’s Water and Sanitation Company (YWSC) and a more recent (FY04) Municipal Water and Wastewater Project for Armenia’s medium and small-sized cities.

“Because of Government’s visionary leadership of the Armenian water sector, and diligent efforts by all project participants, significant improvements have been made in Yerevan’s water service since the first project began in 1998,” said Brian Steven Smith, head of the World Bank team designing the YWWP, – “Much work still remains of course, and we look forward to continued improvement during implementation of the new project.”

The Project benefits directly from Yerevan’s successful experience with a management contractor recruited under the MDP. For the YWWP, Government will increase private sector involvement and competitively recruit an operator for YWSC under a lease contract. The Project will finance investments in YWSC during the first five years of the lease.

The Project has two components: a YWWP Fund and Technical Assistance. The YWWP Fund will finance investments undertaken by the water utility operator during implementation, which will yield energy savings, improved reliability of supply, and reduction of environmental pollution. The Technical Assistance component will fund interim operational management of YWSC, project financial and technical audits, and incremental operating expenses.

The Credit will be made to Armenia on standard IDA terms, including 40 years maturity and a 10-year grace period.

Armenia’s Poverty Reduction Strategy

NOVEMBER 18, 2004 – The World Bank today approved a Poverty Reduction Support Credit (PRSC) for Armenia worth US$ 20 million. The first of a three-year program by the World Bank, this project is designed around four themes and targeted to support the implementation of the government’s PRSP program.

The International Development Association (IDA) Credit will assist the government in sharpening competition and entrenching property rights, mitigating social and environmental risks, consolidating macroeconomic discipline and modernizing the rural economy.

„The project will assist the government to implement the ambitious Poverty Reform Strategy over the coming years,“ said Saumya Mitra, World Bank Task Manager and head of the team designing the project. „It will also support the government’s drive to improve the quality in the delivery of essential public services.“

The PRSC is based upon and supports the policy and institutional reforms reflected in the Government’s PRSP document, and builds on achievements of the previous Bank supported Structural Adjustment operations provided by the World Bank from 1994 until 2003 (5 SACs and a Rehabilitation Credit).

The Poverty Reduction Support Credit is designed around the following four themes:

  • Consolidating macroeconomic discipline and strengthening governance. The first theme recognizes that a continuation of Armenia’s exemplary macroeconomic performance over the past five years is necessary to underpin high rates of growth. Moreover, governance reforms that cut across budget, fiduciary, revenue raising, and public administration institutions and sectors will improve the climate for private sector investment, remove opportunities for corruption, and enhance revenue mobilization.
  • The second theme of sharpening competition and entrenching property rights – cutting across trade, utilities regulation, property and contract law, banking and capital markets, and rural sectors – addresses the key weaknesses in the competition environment. Armenia needs to reduce transaction costs and sharpen its competitive edge by complementing its highly liberal regime in trade in goods with liberalization in key services and by consolidating its impressive reforms in state owned utilities. In addition, entrenching property rights through the provision of a legal framework for secured transactions, by instilling confidence in the banking sectors and developing insurance markets is essential to secure increasing rates of private investment.
  • Social and environmental risks – the third theme – that cuts across education, health, social risk management and environmental protection sectors – are designed to be mitigated by a program of reforms directed at raising both the share of public spending devoted to these sectors and the quality of spending through changes in their composition and institutional reforms. The resulting strengthening of human capital and reduced risks for sustainable natural resource use will greatly assist in the reduction of poverty.
  • Interventions in the rural economy – the final theme – that cuts across the agriculture, non-farm incomes, and infrastructure sectors – are intended to modernize a lagging sector of the economy and one in which the impact of growth on poverty needs to be further strengthened. Greater predictability and sustainability in public services in rural Armenia is expected to strongly benefit the fight against poverty.

The project will also be supported by a EURO 4.3 million co-financing Grant from the Netherlands Government, which together with PRSC I proceeds will support the State budget.

The Credit will be made to Armenia on standard IDA terms, including 40 years maturity and a 10-year grace period.

Since joining the World Bank in 1992 and IDA in 1993, the commitments to
Armenia total approximately US$ 841 million for 37 operations.